Keto diet for weight loss in women and men: the essence, the list of products. Or ketogenic diet – not new: a hundred years ago, before the advent of effective anticonvulsants, French pediatricians noticed that certain dietary restrictions reduce the frequency of seizures in children with drug-resistant epilepsy.
Based on metabolic studies, a therapeutic diet – without starch and sugar – was developed and became part of a comprehensive therapy for epilepsy in the early 1900s. It is claimed that the authorship of the name “ketogenic diet” belongs to the American doctor Russel M. Wilder (Russel M. Wilder), who used it in the treatment of epilepsy in the 1930s. The last century.
The Keto diet involves a high fat content in the diet, a moderate protein intake and a very low carbohydrate content. For many people, this ratio of nutrients for a limited period is considered safe and not only helps lose excess pounds, but has therapeutic use.
The low-carbohydrate keto-diet for epilepsy, widely used in foreign clinical practice, has helped reduce the frequency of seizures in children of different ages by 62-75% (after dietary treatment for 12 weeks). At the same time, children prescribed such a diet should be registered with physicians who monitor their normal growth and weight gain, and also make adjustments according to each child’s needs.
Dietary nutrition with a minimal amount of carbohydrates has also been used in other disorders. Researchers have shown that ketogenic diets are useful in treating patients with De Vivo disease – a GLUT1 (glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier) protein deficiency syndrome, as well as some other congenital metabolic defects.
It is believed that this dietary system can slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Charcot’s disease); indications for the appointment of a ketogenic diet include such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Clinical studies are conducted on the influence of a ketogenic diet on the condition of patients with autism, depression, type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Best known ketogenic diet for weight loss-in the form of the Atkins diet for the treatment of obesity, modified and popularized by Dr. Robert Atkins (Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution, 1972). Although ketogenic specialists only consider the induction phase of this diet. And, in all fairness, it should be noted that long before the principles of the ketogenic diet were committed to many American doctors: Peter Hattenlocher Alfred Pennington, Richard Makkarnes, etc., for example, R. Makkarnes in 1958 wrote the book Eat Fat and Grow Slim (“Eat Fat. And Grow Slim”), and this, in fact, is the same low carbohydrate diet originally introduced for the treatment of epilepsy.
Since the deposition of excess adipose tissue in the form of concentrate in his cells triglycerides is due to excessive consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (this fact is no one in doubt), the restriction of carbohydrates in the diet to a minimum – ketogenic diet for a month – helps to reduce fat reserves , ie, lose weight.
In addition, it was found that the keto diet in oncology – by increasing the oxidative stress of cancer cells – significantly reduces the growth rate of malignant tumors located in the large intestine, stomach, prostate and lungs. In addition, the sensitivity of some tumors to chemotherapy has been shown to be due to the induced state of ketosis.
Over the past two decades, bodybuilders have begun using a ketogenic diet to reduce the layer of fat under the skin: on their jargon, this is referred to as keto-diet drying.
General information keto diets
On a standard keto diet, 70-80% of the total daily calorie count should come from fat, 15-20% from protein, and 5% from carbohydrates (less than 50 g per day).
Typically, the ratio of the weight of fat to the weight of protein and carbohydrates is 3: 1 (i.e. 3 grams of fat per gram of protein + carbohydrates). If the ratio is 4: 1, 90% of the energy yields fat, 8% – protein and only 2% – carbohydrates (about 20 g per day).
Despite centuries of use, the mechanisms underlying the clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy remain largely unknown. Several versions have been proposed, including a modification of the Krebs cycle to increase gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis in the brain and increase energy production from ketone bodies, which is 70% consumed by brain tissue. The ketogenic diet leads to adaptive changes in brain energy metabolism, which increase energy reserves; ketone bodies are a more efficient source of ATP for brain neurons than glucose.
The essence of the diet used to reduce excess weight is the introduction of the body into a state of adaptive ketosis-when energy (ATP) the body receives primarily from blood ketone bodies, rather than glucose, when carbohydrate-containing products are used.
Carbohydrates from food are converted into glucose, but when a person consumes very few carbohydrates and a lot of fat, a chain of biochemical reactions is triggered in the body. Schematically, this process looks like this. First, as the blood glucose level decreases, the pancreas begins to produce more glucagon hormone, which stimulates the catabolism of glycogen stored in the liver into glucose and its release into the bloodstream. Second, ketogenesis is triggered, i.e. the hepatic production of ketone bodies (acetoacetate, which was then transformed into β-hydroxybutyrate and acetone) and the conversion of dietary fat into free carboxylic acids (fats). Third, because of the increased level of glucagon, the activity of lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides (fats) accumulated in adipose tissue cells, increases significantly.
In addition, during the first two weeks of adherence to the keto diet, significant weight loss occurs due to the excretion of water from the body, which is also associated with an increase in glucagon production. And so the temporary side effect of a high-fat diet can be dehydration, which nutritionists recommend combating by using up to two liters of water per day.
Many believe that an important advantage of the keto diet is the lack of hunger, the need to count the number of calories and hours of training to burn their surplus.
How does the keto diet differ from the high-fat diet?
The high-fat diet or LCHF differs from the keto diet by the proportions of protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diet, with the high-fat diet taking in a ratio of 50% fat and 25% protein and carbohydrates.
In Europe, a diet high in fat (and the minimum amount of carbohydrates) is called Swedish. Obviously, this is due to the Swedish physician Annika Dahlquist (Annika Dahlqvist), who was to recommend to patients with diabetes to consume more fat and carbohydrates to limit, in contrast to the recommendations approved endocrinologists Sweden.
A professional conflict occurred received wide publicity, but as a result of research conducted at the initiative of the National Health Council (with the participation of 16 thousand. Patients), the reputation of the doctor was restored, and the diet benefits LCHF with high fat content accepted. Due to the reduced need for insulin, this diet was indicated as suitable for people with type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Among the modifications of the ketogenic food system, from the Atkins diet and LCHF-diet can be called strange dietary advice, for example, after the egg on the ketogenic diet – when a couple of days to eat only boiled eggs with mayonnaise …
Cyclic keto diet and other modifications
In recent years, the standard keto diet (SKD) has not been modified. So, there was a high-protein ketogenic diet (HPKD), in which 60% of calories come from fat, 35% from protein, and 5% from carbohydrates.
The target (targeted) ketogenic diet (TKD) is more moderate, as carbohydrates can be eaten before and after training; it is considered sport, so the amount received from carbohydrate use of calories is higher, than in SKD.
Cyclic keto-diet (CKD) or, according to another version rotating ketogenic diet (alternating) is a low-carbohydrate diet with alternating periods of high consumption or moderate amount of carbohydrates: 5-6 days – the minimum number of carbohydrates, carbohydrates loading then conducted on ketone diet: one or two days of carbohydrates are used without restrictions. The unknown authors of this achievement, ketogenic diet are trying to justify their innovations necessary to replenish glycogen reserves, restore levels and activity of the thyroid hormone gland, as well as provide moral and psychological stability – to continue the diet. In fact, everything that is lost in six days, returns immediately.